Perinatologist Email Lists:  Perinatologists specialize in the care of pregnant women with complicated, high-risk pregnancies. Medical care for the mother and fetus is sometimes called perinatal medicine. These doctors are specially trained to treat pregnant women with chronic conditions such as heart disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, and thrombophilia. If they experience pregnancy-related complications such as preterm labor, twins or triplets, preeclampsia, or other health conditions, they can receive help.